Doi: Evaluation of the potential dietary impact of the implementation of nutritionally improved crops in rural areas of the department of Cesar Colombia. Codazzi Colombia. Valledupar Colombia 4 Observatorio del Caribe Colombiano. Cartagena Colombia. In Cesar,
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Doi: Evaluation of the potential dietary impact of the implementation of nutritionally improved crops in rural areas of the department of Cesar Colombia. Codazzi Colombia. Valledupar Colombia 4 Observatorio del Caribe Colombiano. Cartagena Colombia. In Cesar, Therefore, it is important to guarantee food security in the population through improvements in the nutritional quality of the offered food products. One alternative is the implementation of nutritionally improved crops.
The production and consumption of four basic crops in the rural areas of five municipalities were characterized and compared to the implementation of the studied biofortified crops.
In the week prior to the survey, The products mainly originated from purchases in the local store bean and rice or grown by the families cassava. Cassava and maize were most commonly cultivated Looking at the difference between the nutritional content of the biofortified products and the traditional and eating habits indicated that the substitution of the traditional varieties with the biofortified crops represented a possible intake increase of Due to their potential nutritional impact, the study of the adaptability and acceptability of biofortified crops is recommended.
Key words: food fortification, human nutrition, food security, family farming, rural communities. Una alternativa, es implementar cultivos mejorados nutricionalmente.
Debido al impacto nutricional potencial, se recomienda investigar la adaptabilidad y aceptabilidad de cultivares biofortificados. In an evaluation of food intake performed in Colombia in , it was found that Likewise, Furthermore, it was shown that iron deficiencies indicated by a low level of serum ferritin affected Finally, the survey concluded that Cesar reports This together with the unemployment rates of rural areas constitute some of the main social problems.
Up to This process is based on directed crosses with controlled polinization in the field CIAT, The HarvestPlus project www. Additionally, the adaptability of the variety in the cultivated areas, the sensorial acceptability, and the availability of improved seeds are all factors to take into consideration when evaluating the potential impact of biofortified crops.
This information can be used as an indicator of the socio-economic viability of intervention in the rural areas of the mountain range in Cesar. Therefore, this study was performed in order to evaluate: a the family production and individual consumption of bean, maize, cassava, and rice, b and the potential nutritional contribution of nutritionally improved varieties, based on the crops cultivated by the families in the area that are destined for self-consumption, and c compare the results with those found in the department of Cauca.
A descriptive study was performed between November of and February of in order to evaluate the production and consumption of bean, maize, cassava, and rice. The families participating in the survey live between and 1, m a. A random sample of 90 of the families participating in the project "Implementation of biofortified bean in the settings of traditional bean production as a nutritional alternative in the food security program of Cesar" was selected.
Verbal and written consents were collected and surveys were applied following the ethical aspects defined by the Helsinki Declaration Kottow, Based on the results of the surveys, data regarding the weekly frequencies of food consumption of the products included in the study, quantities purchased weekly for family consumption, place of acquisition, and forms of preparation were collected.
Also, information was collected regarding the production of the crops, areas destined for each product, cropping systems, associated crops, varieties used, number of production cycles per year, production per semester, and, of this, how much was destined for self-consumption and how much for sell or trading.
Additionally, visits to each residence were performed in order to weigh the portions consumed by all of the family members for a week, using a multifunctional scale for food products Escali, USA. Given that the portions were not uniform within the families, an average was calculated for each home. Also, the production areas were visited in order to determine the area using a GPS , planting density, and anticipated yield.
Data analyzes were performed using SPSS v. The correlation between the consumed and produced quantities was determined for the cassava, maize, and bean. In addition, the contribution to the Estimated Average Requirement EAR for adults, according to the Institute of Medicine of the US National Academy of Sciences, was calculated for iron, zinc, and vitamin A in regards to the consumption of the cassava, maize, and bean Simpson et al.
Socio-demographic characteristics of the participants. A total of individuals were interviewed from the 90 households that participated in the survey.
Seventy women responded only to the survey regarding consumption and 70 men responded only to the survey regarding production. The women ranged from 19 to 61 years old, with an average of 38 years, and the men were between 20 and 70 years old with an average age of The level of education ranged from 2 to 11 years for the women in average 5 years and between 5 and 11 years in average 8 years for the men.
The families had, on average, 5. Food consumption: Of the 90 persons in charge of the food preparation, Also, they indicated that the food products originated from different sources Tab. The persons consumed rice 6. They also indicated that they purchased, on average, Given the data regarding purchases of food products, cassava was the crop with the greatest consumption per person, with Table 1.
The forms of preparation of the studied food products varied. For example, the bean was mainly prepared as soup, boiled, or in stews; the maize was prepared as bollos boiled corn bun or arepas corn pancake ; and the cassava and rice were boiled All of the food products were used in soup and for arepas although the quantities of maize in the soup and bean in the arepas were small Tab. Table 2. Food production. The second survey was given to the family member in charge of the food production.
According to the results, the cassava and maize were the most commonly cultivated crops cultivated by The average area per production cycle was 1. Table 3. The highest production in the semester prior to the survey was for cassava 1, In order to promote the diversification of the income sources and improve food security, in , the Colombian Coffee Growers Federation stimulated the establishment of 2, ha of maize and 2, ha of bean in department of Cesar.
Of the total produced amount of these crops in the semester prior to the study, 1, Potential nutritional contribution from nutritionally improved crops. It was estimated that, if the cultivated cassava, maize and bean destined for self-consumption were substituted with nutritionally improved varieties, this would contribute in each person increase Table 4.
The data regarding the production and consumption of the bean, cassava, maize, and rice showed the importance of agriculture in the studied area. Agriculture provides the primary source of employment in the rural areas of Cesar with This indicates that a high percentage of the families in the rural areas cannot generate sufficient proceeds from this sector. In this country, Harvest Plus is contributing with extensive interventions in order to promote the use of biofortified crops Del Castillo et al.
Sociodemographic characteristics. This value is higher than that of other reports The average number of family members 5.
Food consumption. The most commonly consumed crop in terms of weekly consumption in kg by family was cassava, followed by rice, maize, and bean. The purchased quantities of these crops exceeded those produced when expressing them as g d -1 per person.
In department of Cesar, however, the consumption of cassava exceeded that of rice because cassava is the most important staple food and together with lactic products constitute the main dish, resulting in high consumption.
In regards to the origin of the food products, it was observed that the purchased quantities exceeded those produced for self-consumption, except for the cassava.
Most of the consumed bean was bought in stores The numbers were dissimilar in the case of the maize 4. Also,the maize was, to a lesser extent, obtained by trading 1. Additionally, 2. These numbers corresponded to those reported in the south of Cesar where the primary form of acquisition of calories and nutrients, such as iron, vitamin A, and calcium, was through purchased food Del Castillo et al.
The habit of cultivating maize, bean, and cassava registered in this study was consistent with reports regarding the economic profile of Cesar developed by the MADR e as well as by the Encuesta Nacional Agropecuaria of The positive correlation between the produced and consumed quantities indicated that there was a preference of the farmers to cultivate crops that contribute to the basic food needs.
Potential impact of nutritionally improved crops. This difference was mainly due to the higher occurrence of self-consumption in Cesar. However, the high values should not be a source of concern since they did not surpass the limits of maximum recommended intake of zinc and iron.
Also, the retention or assimilation in the body of the nutrients may be lower than the values used in this document, depending on the combination of the food products used in each meal, which affects the final nutrient availability Boy, The projections made in this study are valid assuming that a a complete substitution of the varieties of the bean, maize, and cassava currently cultivated for self-consumption with nutritionally improved varieties and b that the annual production destined for consumption in the families remained stable.
However, the consumption of cassava estimated in this study corresponded to a diet with carbohydrate intakes exceeding the EAR g d -1 Simpson et al. Although the risk of overconsumption of carbohydrates should be considered, it is clear that the ingestion of nutritionally improved crops can improve the nutritional status of a population that suffers from deficiencies ICBF, Recent studies around the world have registered the effect of the regular consumption of biofortified crops on human health.
In India, iron consumption from pearl millet in children between 12 and 16 years was associated with an increase in the serum ferritin and iron concentrations Wenger et al. In Ruanda, the consumption of biofortified beans showed significant effects on biochemical indicators such as hemoglobin, serum ferritin and iron, as compared to the control Boy, In India, the regular consumption of biofortified pearl millet resulted in an elevated absorption of zinc in pre-school aged children Gannon, In pre-schoolers 4 to 8 years old in rural Mkushi, Zambia, an increased adaptation to penumbra adaptation to darkness associated with the consumption of maize with carotenoids was observed.
Furthermore, through the implementation of various products, there may be synergies between the different nutrients that nutritionally improved crops provide.
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