Red sorghum bran is known as a rich source for anthocyanins. The anthocyanin contents extracted from red sorghum bran were evaluated by biochemical analysis. Among the three solvent system used, the acidified methanol extract showed a highest anthocyanin content 4. To study the health benefits of anthocyanin from red sorghum bran, the total antioxidant activity was evaluated by biochemical and molecular methods. The highest antioxidant activity was observed in acidified methanol extracts of anthocyanin in dose-dependent manner. The antioxidant activity of the red sorghum bran was directly related to the total anthocyanin found in red sorghum bran.
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Molecular structures of flavonoid and phenolic substances used as antioxidant in this study. Materials and Methods 2. Subsequently, 2. The absorbance of the samples at nm was measured and compared to that of blank solution. Alcohol was used instead of the sample for the blank, while buffer solution was used instead of the sample for the control.
The incubation and absorbance measurements were continued until the maximum absorbance values of the control sample were reached about 1.
The sample volume in the tubes was to 0. After incubation for 10 min, the absorbance of the mixture was read at nm against the blank. Acetate buffer was used as a blank control sample. After incubation in the dark for 30 min, absorbance was measured at nm against a distilled water blank. Superoxide Anion Radical Scavenging Activity Superoxide anion radical scavenging activity was determined using the method described by Zhishen et al.
This method is based on the spectrophotometric measurement of nitroblue tetrazolium NBT. Different concentrations of samples and standards were prepared in phosphate buffer 0.
To the sample solutions, riboflavin, methionine, and NBT were added at concentrations of The reaction mixture was stimulated with 20 W of fluorescent light at room temperature for 2 h.
Absorbance was measured at nm against a distilled water blank. DPPH solution 1 mM was used as the free radical. Subsequently, 0. After incubation at room temperature in the dark for 30 min, the absorbance values were measured at nm against the ethanol blank.
A solution of 2 mL of ethanol and 0. Decreasing absorbance values indicated higher free radical scavenging activity. ABTS radicals were produced by adding 2. Next, the absorbance of the control solution at nM was adjusted to nm using phosphate buffer 0. ABTS radical solution 0. The absorbance was measured against an ethanol blank at nm. The optical density of the control solution at nm was adjusted to nm using phosphate buffer 0. The absorbance of freshly prepared solution is stable for 12 h.
One milliliter of solution was added to the solution and absorbance values were measured at nm after incubation for 50 min. Buffer solution was used as a blank [ 28 ]. The final volume was brought to 4 mL using distilled water. The reaction was initiated by adding 0.
After the solution was thoroughly mixed by vortexing, it was incubated at room temperature for 10 min. Subsequently, the absorbance values were measured at nm against an ethanol blank. As a control, a solution lacking any phenolic or flavonoid compounds was used. Results and Discussion Antioxidant compounds exert their effects through different mechanisms such as inhibiting hydrogen abstraction, binding transition metal ions, radical scavenging, and disintegrating peroxides [ 30 , 31 ].
One of the most important factors influencing antioxidant capacity is the ability of the antioxidant to donate electrons. Due to the harmful effects of synthetic antioxidants such as BHA and BHT, antioxidant capacities of flavonoids and phenolic compounds in plant-derived or natural origin have garnered substantial research interest and are being investigated extensively [ 32 ].
Many methods have been developed to determine the antioxidant capacities of synthetic or naturally sourced compounds, plant extracts, and other samples.
TAC determination is a method that encompasses many factors, which are captured individually by other methods. Since TAC is affected by metal chelating capacity, reducing power, and free radical scavenging activity of compounds e.
TAC determination is widely used for clinically used bioactive substances and compounds that are food ingredients. TAC can also be defined as the capacity to inhibit lipid peroxidation of compounds [ 34 ]. The ability to inhibit linoleic acid emulsion is tested to determine possible total antioxidant effects of a bioactive compound [ 35 ].
Linoleic acid emulsion ultimately produces hydroperoxides and the resulting hydroperoxides decompose to form secondary products. In this method, the amount of hydroperoxide from the linoleic acid resulting from autoxidation is measured indirectly during the test period. The oxidation of linoleic acid is slow in the presence of antioxidants [ 36 ].
ID-8, callistephin, malvin, and oenin had higher inhibitory effects than all reference antioxidants used, with
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Search Menu Abstract The effect of l-carnitine on lipid peroxidation and enzymatic antioxidants, such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase, was evaluated in brain regions of young and old rats. In all brain regions except the hypothalamus, lipid peroxidation was higher for old rats than for young control rats. The activity of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase was lower in the striatum, cerebral cortex, and hippocampus, but no difference was observed in the hypothalamus and cerebellum. Administration of l-carnitine reversed the age-associated changes in a duration-dependent manner. Results suggest that the neuroprotective effect on the brains in old rats was achieved by the elevation of antioxidants with l-carnitine.
Antioxidant and Antiradical Properties of Selected Flavonoids and Phenolic Compounds
Antioxidant and antiradical activities of l-carnitine
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