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Descubra todo lo que Scribd tiene para ofrecer, incluyendo libros y audiolibros de importantes editoriales. Music Therapy for Adolescents. Oulu, Finland. Music, and in particular rock music, can give adolescents the possibility to express, be in contact with and share among themselves feelings of anger, rage, grief, longing and psychological disintegration. Music also provides adolescents with opportunities to experience closeness and isolation and to explore their sexual fantasies and feelings.

Music therapists work in psychiatric hospitals,. He began by working in an institute for people with a mental disability and later worked for many years in a large psychiatric hospital with adult psychiatric patients.

At present he works as a freelance music therapist with children and adolescents. He supervises music therapists and also gives lectures. He has also published studies, articles and essays on music therapy in adolescence and childhood, the importance of music and creativity at different developmental phases and on the importance of youth culture for adolescence growth and development. The music therapy described in this article is based on psychoanalysis.

The possibilities offered by the special features of adolescent growth and development, rock music and youth culture should be taken into consider- ation when music therapy is used in adolescent psychiatry. The content of music therapy.

The therapeutic community described in this article was situated at the University of Oulu Central Hospital Department of Psychiatry, Finland. The ward consisted of eight beds, four for boys and four for girls with such problems as serious adolescent crisis, aggressive and anti-social behaviour and severe depression but not psychosis. The adolescent psychi- atric team was composed of the staff of the ward and the outpatient clinic.

The members of the team were under group supervision and each member was also under individual supervision. In addition to psychoanalytic psychotherapy, the adolescents on the ward had the oppor- tunity to participate in community therapy, which includes music therapy.

I was able to make use of all the material collected by the team concerning background, development and the present problems of the adolescent. Music therapy was followed with written notes and video-recordings, which were discussed by the team on a weekly basis, thus making it possible to integrate music therapy into overall treatment. Adolescent psychiatric treatment was voluntary, which also applied to music therapy as a part of this treatment. The music therapy described herein took place either in groups or individually, in the music room or on the ward.

The hospital music therapy room, which was equipped with a wide variety of musical instruments, was reserved for the adolescents twice a week for two hours per session. The acoustic instruments on the ward were freely available for use by the adolescents in their rooms. In practice, the main goal of music therapy is to listen to, and above all, play, the type of music the adolescents themselves choose.

The adolescents participated in music therapy two to three times a week for periods of between six months and four and a half years. Most of the adolescents took part in music therapy at some time during their treatment. Adolescence and rock music. Rock music Tervo, , is often a natural target of interest for adolescents. Music only becomes rock music when it is combined with the fantasies which the adolescent. This must take into account the sounds, rhythms, melodies, instruments, voice, lyrics and the combined effect of countless variations of tone.

Music can affect adolescents emotionally at a level deeper than is possible with words alone. Rock music enables adolescents to express, to be in contact with and to share among themselves feel-. It can safely lull the adolescent into regressive moods and.

Rock music may open up possibilities for the exploration of sexual fantasies and feel- ings. Although the style and lyrics may change, adolescents use rock music to connect with. Improvisation in adolescence music therapy. Based on my personal clinical experience, I have divided adolescent music therapy into three stages; interest, learning and improvisation Tervo, , , The stage of interest. An adolescent new to the ward becomes interested in music therapy through other adolescents and through the support of both the music therapist and the atmosphere on the ward which supports self-expression and youth culture.

The unconscious fantasies and hopes of the adolescent are central to this stage. The stage of learning. In the learning stage, the adolescent begins to understand and master playing different instruments together with the music therapist. This may lead him or her to a feeling of being small and a very amateur player. More importantly this makes it possible for the adolescent to invest his or her fantasies in the music therapist as a good object, as well as in the music and instruments.

Learn- ing music provides a means of coping with powerful emotions and fantasies. Well-known musical structures create a feeling of safety as well as providing a frame for adolescent regression. The stage of improvisation. Improvisation is to music therapy what free association is to psychotherapy Tervo, The secure and supportive atmosphere provided by music therapy allows adoles- cents, even those with a limited musical ability, to freely experiment with instruments and sounds.

Thus, the adolescent takes part in creating music with others. It is this, which allows them to work spontaneously together.

In a dynamic sense, music therapy becomes more personal and intense as it progresses towards improvisation. The stages of interest and learning, the length and content of which vary with each adolescent, prepare them for actual improvisation. The impro- visation discussed here is not jazz improvisation in which chords, keys, scales and. The improvisation in question is a musical game in which the adolescents — or the music therapist — invent a drum beat, a series of chords or the phrase of a melody which is then worked on together.

The improvisation is always new and different and expresses the feelings of the adolescents at the time. Once adolescents become really interested in music therapy, they begin to co-operate more with the therapist. When situations arise and develop naturally, and the therapist is teaching less and less, the therapy has reached the improvisation stage. During this time the playing becomes more instinctive and the players learn to anticipate each other.

A shared sense of humour, the songs and the musical language created together all make for improved co-operation. The music no longer acts merely as a defence or as a perform- ance, but rather becomes a deeper shared experience. During the interest and learning stages, the therapist guides and supports the adolescent to the gates of self-expression and creativity.

When improvisation becomes possible, the roles change; the adolescent then shows the way to their inner world. The music therapist tries to follow and explore this world with the adolescent. One of the great challenges facing the music therapist and other members of therapy team is the achievement of trust leading to a stable thera- pist—adolescent relationship. To others, this world may be empty, traumatic and full of loss, disappointment or rage.

The example also provides the possibility to observe a group of rest- less and anxious youngsters using music to get in touch with their hidden emotions. Example 1. His father, with whom he was in close contact, had suffered serious mental problems and had attempted to commit suicide. His treatment lasted three and a half years.

He constantly broke the rules of the ward expressing in this manner his belief that no one cared for him. In one music therapy session John became irritated and angry because the other adoles- cents, who were better players than he at that time, did not let him play. The room was. I tried to discuss this but without success. I then asked John to play the electric bass and the others to play the instruments they were able to play best. John performed his part with serious concentration and without making mistakes.

Suddenly, the whole band began to play with a strong feeling of communication and with deep emotion. Later, it was evident that the approaching Christmas vacation had affected the adoles- cents; the ward was to be closed for a few weeks and the adolescents felt that they were all being abandoned by the staff — including the music therapist. The loud, chaotic noise expressed aggression and worked as a defence against anxiety.

The sad, but beautiful blues ballad, which I chose intuitively, touched them more deeply than words: loneliness became shared and was accepted through playing together. The music of the song could be felt as constructive and secure but at the same time full of longing and disappointment.

The words of this bluesy folk song describe a caring mother and a gambling, drinking father left behind. The House of the Rising Sun 1.

My mother was a tailor She sewed my new blue jeans My father was a gambling man, down in New Orleans. Even though the song created together was experienced as safe and secure, it was the music therapist whose presence made possible the discovery and sharing of the song.

Later in psychotherapy, John was able to verbalize his feeling about being left alone by the staff, his psychotherapist and music therapist among others, because of the approaching vaca- tion. Even though the song described above was well known, the emotional content of it came from the adolescents. At the improvisation stage, there must be trust in the therapist and in the other players.

Transitional objects and phenomena in adolescent music therapy. Music itself or a musical instrument can also be a transitional object Winnicott, The transitional phenomenon takes place through the fantasies invested in them. An instrument which is not cathected cannot express inner voices. In music therapy, playing is the result of co-operation and a feeling of belonging together. Many adolescents project their desire to be powerful and skilful onto electric guitars and drums. I have divided these fantasies into two categories: omnipotence and closeness.

Fantasies of omnipotence. The loud noise gave John feelings of power and greatness. Although he hid behind the drumbeat, he was able to build a bridge of co-operation with me and the adolescents on the ward.


Winnicott pdf

Although accepting Klein, he viewed the key aspect of healthy development as rooted in relationships and micro-interactions with other people, thus taking particular interest in Object Relations Theory. Contact Winnicott on Messenger. Ebook Winnicott Free Download. I wish to refer to the normal aspect of this and also to its psychopathology. Winnicott on Hate in CountertransferenceIn analyzing psychotics, as oppose to neurotics, treatment is very stressful.


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