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Corrigiola telephiifolia Pourr. Caryophyllaceae is a Moroccan medicinal plant. Despite its popular usage, no study has been published concerning its toxicological profile. The acute toxicity of C. No mortality or signs of toxicity were observed in the acute study. Histological examination did not reveal any treatment-related effects. In conclusion, Corrigiola extract appears safe at the doses used ethno-medicinally.
Much higher doses pose toxicological risks. Plants which are commonly used in traditional medicine are frequently promoted as natural and, therefore, harmless.
This assessment is based on their usage in the treatment of diseases over centuries [ 1 , 2 ]. However, some medicinal plants must be used with caution because they can cause adverse reactions, especially if they are taken in excessive doses, or if they interact with conventional drugs [ 3 — 13 ]. Consequently, in response to public health concerns, research that focuses on deficiencies in the knowledge about medicinal plants and their potential toxicities is highly encouraged by many official medical and scientific organizations [ 14 — 17 ] and by complementary and alternative medicine CAM researchers and practitioners [ 18 , 19 ].
In Morocco, the use of medicinal plants is an important and essential part of the culture and of the traditional healthcare system. However, the production, prescription, and use of these plants are not currently regulated. As a result, there is always the danger of inappropriate use, incorrect identification, and interactions with concurrently administered drugs. The root, which is used for medicinal and cosmetic purposes, is a perennial tap root.
This species is found in Southern Europe and North Africa. In Morocco, it grows in cultivated beds on rocky and sandy soils. It is widely spread in the Atlas and Rif mountains [ 20 ]. Morocco exports annually a quantity of about tons [ 21 ]. When burned, the root of this plant releases an aromatic fume. The root is also used to treat flu, dermatological diseases, inflammation, ulcer, cough, and jaundice; it is also used as an anasthenic and a diuretic [ 20 ].
Corrigiola root is part of a traditional remedy given to parturient women. The powdered root is traditionally consumed plain, mixed with honey, or simply sprinkled on food [ 22 ], personal investigation. Despite the exposure of the Moroccan population to this plant and particularly its use by many women in delicate health conditions e. The present investigation was therefore undertaken to evaluate the potential toxic risks incurred following the ingestion of hydroalcohol extract of Corrigiola telephiifolia in rodents.
Caryophyllaceae was collected during its blossoming stage in June from Ben Slimane in western Morocco. The whole plant was identified by Professor A. The roots were separated from the aerial parts of the plant, washed, cut into small pieces, and dried under shade.
They were thereafter ground into a powder. The aqueous ethanol extract was concentrated to dryness under vacuum. Preliminary phytochemical screening of the extract involved qualitative determinations of the following substances: alkaloids, saponins, terpenes, tannins, quinones, and flavonoids.
Determinations were carried out in accordance with procedures described by Harborne [ 24 ]. Adult Swiss albino mice and Wistar rats of either sex were used for the acute and forty-day toxicity studies, respectively. They were fed ad libitum with Cicalim pellets Cicalim s. All animals had free access to tap water. They were acclimatized for 5 days before the beginning of the study. Before the experiment, the mice did not have access to food for four hours as recommended by the Food and Drug Administration [ 25 ].
These doses took into account the solubility of the extract in distilled water. Animals were observed during the first 12 hours for signs and symptoms such as modifications in autonomic activity, posture, piloerection, and respiratory pattern.
Other signs and symptoms observed include occurrence of hemorrhage, diarrhea, convulsions, tremors, sedation, and death. The mice were weighed daily and observed for fourteen days following treatment. The heart, liver, kidneys, pancreas, lungs, stomach, and spleen were immediately removed, weighed, and placed in Bouin's solution. After dehydrating and embedding, sections of microns thick were cut using a rotary microtone.
The sections were stained with haematoxylin and eosin and examined microscopically. Prior to the experiment, the animals were kept away from food overnight [ 26 ]. After the last dose, rats were not fed overnight. Blood was collected in two types of tubes: one with EDTA and the other without additives.
The anticoagulated blood tube with EDTA was analyzed immediately for hematological parameters. The animals were then sacrificed by exsanguination under urethane anesthesia and the organs were removed for histopathological analysis. During the forty-day dosing period, all animals were weighed and observed daily for convulsions, excitement, posture, piloerection, breathing difficulty, sedation, anorexia, diarrhea, hemorrhage, and death.
Observations were made immediately before dosing, and up to four hours after dosing. The biochemical parameters measured were sodium, chloride ion, potassium, magnesium, calcium, iron, bicarbonate ion, phosphorus, total protein, glucose, urea, uric acid, and creatinine.
Macroscopic examination of vital organs was carried out soon after sacrifice. Different organs, namely, the heart, liver, kidneys, stomach, lungs, and spleen were surgically removed, placed on absorbent papers for a few minutes, and then weighed absolute organ weight in grams.
The relative organ weight ROW of each animal was then calculated as follows:. Tissue biopsies from excised organs were fixed in Bouin's solution. Following dehydration and embedding, sections were cut at microns with the rotary microtone, stained with hematoxylin and eosin, and examined microscopically to assess any potential toxic effects [ 27 ]. Significant differences between control and experimental groups were assessed by Student's t-test.
No signs of toxicity or significant bodyweight changes were recorded. The histopathological examination not presented of selected organs showed normal architecture similar to the control group. These observations reveal that the oral medium lethal dose value LD 50 of the hydroethanol root extract of C.
All treated mice were carefully examined for any signs of toxicity during a period of 14 days. Throughout the day feeding study, there was no mortality recorded in either the control or treated groups at the administered doses Table 2.
These clinical signs lasted one or two weeks depending on the sex females seemed more susceptible than males Table 2. Effect of a forty-day oral administration of Corrigiola telephiifolia root extract in rats. Pronounced clinical signs such as abdominal contractions, inactivity, prostration, intense diarrhea, and anorexia were observed in all animals.
In addition, respiratory complications were noted in two rats. These observations were made during the initial three to four week period. The mean bodyweights of the animals in the study are presented in Table 3. For males, this reduction in weight was statistically significant during the first week. These male rats subsequently recovered their weight, but female rats did not recover their weight throughout the treatment period.
Changes in the mean bodyweight of rats after daily oral treatment 40 days with Corrigiola telephiifolia extract. The hematological parameters were not significantly different between the treated rats and the control group Table 4. Effect of a forty-day oral administration of Corrigiola telephiifolia extract on hematological parameters of Wistar rats. There were no statistically significant differences between control and treated groups.
Effect of a forty-day oral administration of Corrigiola telephiifolia extract on biochemical parameters of female Wistar rats. Effect of a forty-day oral administration of Corrigiola telephiifolia extract on biochemical parameters of male Wistar rats. Total proteins decreased significantly when compared with those of the control group Table 5. The macroscopic observation of the organs did not present any significant morphological or hemorrhagic changes due to the administration of the extract.
There were also no statistically significant differences in the relative organ weights Table 7. Histopathological examination of the different organs demonstrated that there were no pathological features observed in either the control or the treated groups. Effect of a forty-day oral administration of Corrigiola telephiifolia extract on relative organ weights of Wistar rats. There were no statistically significant differences in the relative organ weights.
The phytochemical screening of C. Alkaloids, tannins, quinones, and flavonoids were not detected. It is considered safe by Moroccan folk [ 22 ], personal investigation. The undertaken acute toxicity study has apparently confirmed this reputation. Since the acute dose study could not provide a guideline for selecting doses for the chronic low-dose investigation, and in the absence of other toxicological data that could have helped to determine the duration of treatment, this study was designed using the WHO's recommendations for herbal medicine testing [ 17 ].
A forty-day oral toxicity study was consequently performed. These are probably behavioral responses to the malaise induced by the extract [ 29 ]. Mild diarrhea was noticed only during the first week of the exposure period, perhaps due to subsequent adaptation.
Intestinal smooth muscle contractions may account for the observed diarrhea and the abdominal contractions. Although the smooth muscle contractions have not been characterized, they may lend credence to the use of the plant in postpartum hemorrhage.
Changes in serum sodium and chloride concentrations tend, according to the OECD guideline [ 29 ], to occur in parallel when they are associated with relative water content, and both electrolytes become depleted by fluid loss. Thus, the decrease in these two parameters might be related to the diarrhea observed during the test. Histopathology was also similar. In contrast, the female groups were more sensitive and presented, in addition to decrease in Na and Cl levels, signs of nephrotoxicity, mild hepatic injury, and nutrient deficiency.
These symptoms were revealed by characteristic biochemical markers such as the increase in the serum creatinine level and the phosphorus concentration for kidney injury, the increase in ALP and GGT levels for liver damage, and the decrease in serum proteins for nutrient deficiency [ 29 — 32 ].
Plant Biodiversity of South-Western Morocco
DOI : Objective: The evaluation of the hypolipidemic and antioxidant activities of the aerial parts aqueous extract of Corrigiola telephiifolia APAE of C. Keywords: Antioxidant activities, Corrigiola telephiifolia, flavonoids, streptozotocin, total cholesterol, triglycerides. Abstract: Objective: The evaluation of the hypolipidemic and antioxidant activities of the aerial parts aqueous extract of Corrigiola telephiifolia APAE of C. Content Access Key:. Volume 17 , Issue 1 , Journal Home.
Corrigiola telephiifolia Pourr.
Hypolipidemic and Antioxidant Activities of Corrigiola telephiifolia in Diabetic Rats