FM 5-434 PDF

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It gives estimated production rates, characteristics, operation techniques, and soil considerations for earthmoving equipment. This guide should be used to help select the most economical and effective equipment for each individual operation. This manual discusses the complete process of estimating equipment production rates.

However, users of this manual are encouraged to use their experience and data from other projects in estimating production rates. The material in this manual applies to all construction equipment regardless of make or model. The equipment used in this manual are examples only. Information for pro- duction calculations should be obtained from the operator and maintenance manuals for the make and model of the equipment being used. Appendix A contains an English-to-metric measurement conversion chart.

Unless this publication states otherwise, masculine nouns and pronouns do not refer exclusively to men.

Managing Earthmoving Operations Chapter 1 Managing Earthmoving Operations Earthmoving may include site preparation; excavation; embankment construction; backfilling; dredging; preparing base course, subbase, and subgrade; compaction; and road surfacing. The types of equipment used and the environmental conditions will affect the man- and machine-hours required to complete a given amount of work. Before preparing estimates, choose the best method of operation and the type of equipment to use.

Each piece of equipment is specifically designed to perform certain mechanical tasks. Therefore, base the equipment selection on efficient operation and availability. Project managers must follow basic management phases to ensure that construction projects successfully meet deadlines set forth in project directives. Additionally, managers must ensure conformance to safety and environmental-protection standards.

Proper equipment selection is crucial to achieving efficient earthmoving and construction operations. The manager should visualize how best to employ the available equipment based on soil considerations, zone of operation, and project-specific requirements. Equipment production-estimating procedures discussed in this manual help quantify equipment productivity. Production estimates, production control, and production records are the basis for management decisions.

Therefore, it is helpful to have a common method of recording, directing, and reporting production. Refer to specific, 7. FM Managing Earthmoving Operations equipment production-estimating procedures in the appropriate chapters in this manual.

The most convenient and useful unit of work done and unit of time to use in calculating productivity for a particular piece of equipment or a particular job is a function of the specific work-task being analyzed.

To make accurate and meaningful comparisons and conclusions about production, it is best to use standardized terms. The entire expression is a time-related production rate. It can be cubic yards per hour, tons per shift also indicate the duration of the shift , or feet of ditch per hour. This denotes the unit of production accomplished. It can be the volume or weight of the material moved, the number of pieces of material cut, the distance traveled, or any similar measurement of production.

This denotes an arbitrary time unit such as a minute, an hour, a hour shift, a day, or any other convenient duration in which the unit of work done is accomplished. The inverse of the production-rate formula is sometimes useful when scheduling a project because it defines the time required to accomplish an arbitrary amount of work.

NOTE: Express the time required in units such as hours per 1, cubic yards, hours per acre, days per acre, or minutes per foot of ditch. Depending on where a material is considered in the construction process, during excavation versus after compaction, the same material weight will occupy different volumes Figure A LCY is 1 cubic yard of material after it has been disturbed by an excavation process.

A CCY is 1 cubic yard of material after compaction. When manipulating the material in the construction process, its volume changes.

Tables and , page , give material-volume conversion and load factors. For earthmoving operations, material is placed in three categories—rock, soil common earth , and unclassified. Rock is a material that ordinary earthmoving equipment cannot remove. Fracturing rock requires drilling and blasting. After blasting, use excavators to load the rock fragments into haul units for removal.

Soils are classified by particle-size distribution and cohesiveness. For instance, gravel and sands have blocky-shaped particles and are noncohesive, while clay has small, platy-shaped particles and is cohesive. Although ripping equipment may be necessary to loosen consolidated deposits, soil removal does not require using explosives. The unclassified rock-soil combination is the most common material found throughout the world. It is a mixture of rock and soil materials.

In an earthmoving operation, thoroughly analyze the material's properties loadability, moisture content, percentage of swell, and compactability and incorporate this information into the construction plan. Soil preparation and compaction requirements are discussed in Chapter Loadability Loadability is a general material property or characteristic. If the material is easy to dig and load, it has high loadability.

Conversely, if the material is difficult to dig and load, it has low loadability. Certain types of clay and loam are easy to doze or load into a scraper from their natural state. All soil in its natural state contains some moisture. Mechanical or chemical treatment can sometimes change the moisture content of a soil. Table Weights and load factors vary with such factors as grain size, moisture content, and degree of compaction. If an exact weight for a specific material must be determined, run a test on a sample of that particular material.

Most earth and rock materials swell when removed from their natural resting place. The volume expands because of voids created during the excavation process.

After establishing the general classification of a soil, estimate the percentage of swell. Express swell as a percentage increase in volume Table For example, the swell of dry clay is 40 percent, which means that 1 cubic yard of clay in the bank state will fill a space of 1. Estimate the swell of a soil by referring to a table of material properties such as Table Compactability In earthmoving work, it is common to compact soil to a higher density than it was in its natural state.

This is because there is a correlation between higher density and increased strength, reduced settlement, improved bearing capacity, and lower permeability.

The project specifications will state the density requirements. Soil weight affects the performance of the equipment. To estimate the equipment requirements of a job accurately, the unit weight of the material being moved must be known. Soil weight affects how dozers push, graders cast, and scrapers load the material.

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