It was the successor to British Malaya and was conceived to unify the Malay Peninsula under a single government to simplify administration. Following opposition by the ethnic Malays, the union was reorganized as the Federation of Malaya in The capital of the Union was Kuala Lumpur. The former Straits Settlement of Singapore was administered as a separate crown colony. The idea of the Union was first expressed by the British on October plans had been presented to the War Cabinet as early as May  in the aftermath of the Second World War by the British Military Administration. Sir Harold MacMichael was assigned the task of gathering the Malay state rulers' approval for the Malayan Union in the same month.
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The All-Malaya Council of Joint Action AMCJA was a coalition of political and civic organisations in Malaya formed to participate in the development of a constitution for post-war Malaya in preparation for independence and to oppose the Constitutional Proposals for Malaya also known as the Federation Proposals or the Anglo-Malay Proposals which eventually formed the basis of the Federation of Malaya Agreement. In seeking to solve some of the administrative incoherence in the pre-war British ruled Malaya , a policy of constitutional development which incorporated the twin goals of constitutional unity and a common citizenship within Malaya was developed as the basis for eventual self-rule and independence of the territory.
It was expected that Penang and Malacca would be severed from the Straits Settlements to join the new federation while Singapore remained a separate Crown Colony. Significant Malay opposition to the Union was spontaneous and widespread as it was seen as a departure from the traditional pro-Malay policies of the British and the removal of sovereignty of the Malay rulers while a significant majority of non-Malays were generally divided or indifferent to the proposals.
Only openly anti-colonial movements like the radical Malayan Communist Party MCP and the more moderate Malayan Democratic Union MDU , established by English educated left-leaning middle-class intellectuals in Singapore in , emerged to support the proposal with the caveat that Singapore was included in the Union. With the widespread opposition among the Malays, the British administration entered into secret negotiations with the Malay aristocracy and the United Malay National Organisation UMNO as they were unwilling to allow the Malay opposition to the Union develop into an anti-British attitude in the same way that had happened in the Dutch East Indies where the locals were engaged in an open armed rebellion against the Dutch.
When news that the British had agreed to the demands of the conservative Malays and the Anglo-Malay Proposals included institutionalised handicaps against the non-Malay community and the absence of a road map towards Malayan independence, a united front was mulled to oppose the proposals.
On 19 November , a meeting was held to discuss the formation of a united front. Attending this meeting were: .
Following a telegrammed suggestion by Tan Cheng Lock , three central principles were adopted: . The PMCJA sought to gain recognition from to act as the sole representative body with which the British government would negotiate with a view to amending the constitution in accordance with the wishes of that part of the populace that has not been consulted so far.
Opposition to the Anglo-Malay proposal increased with demonstrations being held across Malaya and consultations were held to prepare an alternative set of proposals to be tabled to the British government. The ACCC considered the Revised Constitutional Proposals as being autocratic and irresponsible and it threatened to delay the independence of Malaya indefinitely. Agitation against the Revised Constitutional Approvals grew throughout September with a successful hartal organised in Malacca and Ipoh in protest.
A decision was made to hold the strike, to be known as the All Malaya Hartal , on 20 October to coincide with the opening of the session of the British Parliament where the Revised Constitutional Proposals were to be tabled and debated. The hartal turned out to be a major success  although UMNO held counter demonstrations in the more rural areas like Senggaram and Bagan Datoh contributing to the rise in ethnic tensions and the cancellation of the planned strike in those areas.
The hartal was also successfully carried out in Singapore, which received the prominent support of the Singapore Chinese Chamber of Commerce led by its chairman Lee Kong Chian.
With the declaration of the nationwide emergency , the constituent organisations either withdrew from the coalition, went underground, or in the case of the MDU, voluntarily dissolved itself  and the AMCJA ceased to exist as a body.
Mainstream political developments in Malaya in the following decade came to be dominated by conservative and pro-British groups with a distinctive impact on the historical development of independent Malaya, and later Malaysia, for the next few decades.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. All-Malaya Council of Joint Action. Politics of Malaysia Political parties Elections. Human rights Law Social contract Rukun Negara.
Parliament Senate President : SA. Na'im Mokhtar. Foreign relations. Other countries. Main article: Malayan Union. Florence: Routledge. Buffalo: William S. London: HMSO. Cmd Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. South East Asia, Colonial History. Political Development of Singapore, — Singapore: Singapore University Press.
Forms New 'Action Council ' ". The Malayan Tribune. London: HMSO: Kuala Lumpur: 1st Edition. The Left-wings in Southeast Asia. New York. Political parties in Malaysia. Parties without representation in the Parliament and State Assemblies.
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Special provisions for the advancement of the Malays politically, economically and educationally Malay to be the official language A national flag and a national anthem Melayu Malay : Malay to be the title of any proposed citizenship and nationality in Malaya Foreign affairs and defence to be the joint responsibility of the government of Malaya and the government of Great Britain.
A federation of the Malay states and the former Straits Settlements excluding Singapore. A popularly elected Central Government and popularly elected State councils. An appointed Executive Council headed by a British High Commissioner in Malaya and an appointed Federal Legislative Council of fifty unofficial members, fourteen official members and eleven free members the Menteri Besar of the 9 Malay states and 1 representative each from Penang and Malacca.
A citizenship granting equal rights to all who made Malaya their permanent home and the object of their undivided loyalty. Birth qualifications, language test, and long residential terms imposed, effectively restricting the access to citizenship of domiciled non-Malays .
Malay Rulers to have real sovereign power responsible to the people through popularly elected Councils. Malay Rulers recognised as sovereign monarchs with inherent prerogatives, powers and privileges. Malay customs and religion to be fully controlled by the Malay people through special councils. Malay customs and religion placed within the sole jurisdiction of the Malay Rulers. Special provisions for the advancement of the Malays politically, economically and educationally.
Melayu to be the title of any proposed citizenship and nationality in Malaya. Foreign affairs and defence to be the joint responsibility of the government of Malaya and the government of Great Britain. All portfolios remained within the prerogative of the British High Commissioner and the government of Great Britain.
A Council of Races to be set up to block any discriminatory legislation that is based on ethnicity or religion. A Conference of Rulers was formalised. Ethnic representation in the Federal Legislative Council was set with no provisions for an elected legislature.
All-Malaya Council of Joint Action