HERITIERA LITTORALIS PDF

Email this to a friend Print Share on facebook Tweet this. Showing 0 of 0 comments. General importance Geographic coverage Africa Geographic coverage World Dye and tannins use Timber use Fuel use Medicinal use Stimulant use Conservation status Heritiera littoralis 1, flowering twig; 2, male flower; 3, female flower; 4, fruit. Heritiera littoralis wood obtained from Carlton McLendon, Inc.

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Email this to a friend Print Share on facebook Tweet this. Showing 0 of 0 comments. General importance Geographic coverage Africa Geographic coverage World Dye and tannins use Timber use Fuel use Medicinal use Stimulant use Conservation status Heritiera littoralis 1, flowering twig; 2, male flower; 3, female flower; 4, fruit.

Heritiera littoralis wood obtained from Carlton McLendon, Inc. Heritiera littoralis File:Heritiera littoralis Heritiera littoralis Dungun laut Heritiera littoralis Heritiera littoralis Mei he Wikipedia x - 37k - jpg to.

Heritiera littoralis Identification guide - Heritiera Heritiera littoralis The yellowish leaves of Heritiera Heritiera littoralis Heritiera littoralis x - 14k - jpg www. Heritiera littoralis Heritiera littoralis Heritiera littoralis and Derris Heritiera littoralis Heritiera littoralis x - k species. Heritiera littoralis Leaves of Heritiera littoralis are Tree Heritiera littoralis x - 19k - jpg picasaweb. Heritiera littoralis Heritiera littoralis -Looking-glass Heritiera littoralis Heritiera littoralis x - 66k - jpg homepage3.

Heritiera littoralis Heritiera littoralis x - 79k - jpg www. Tree Heritiera littoralis x - 8k - jpg picasaweb. Heritiera littoralis Heritiera littoralis, looking-glass Comments 0. Looking-glass tree En. Bois de table Fr. Luabo Po. Msikundazi, mkokoshi, mgongongo Sw. In eastern Africa the tree boles are used to make masts of boats, for shipbuilding and furniture.

In tropical Asia the wood is more commonly used, particularly for rice pounders and other domestic articles, but sometimes also for piling, bridges and shipbuilding.

It is recommended for steamed bentwork and when strength and durability are required. The wood is excellent firewood, having a high energy value. It is suitable for the production of wrapping, writing and printing paper. The bark has been used for tanning, and is occasionally still used for toughening fishing nets. In Kenya a root decoction is used to treat mouth infection and toothache.

In tropical Asia a seed extract is used to treat diarrhoea and dysentery. The seed is occasionally eaten and has been used as a cola substitute. In the Philippines the roots are used as fish poison. The wood of Heritiera littoralis is of little commercial value, but has been of some importance in the Philippines.

The wood of Heritiera littoralis is heavy, hard and strong. The heartwood is reddish brown or dark brown, often with a chocolate or purple tinge. The grain is interlocked, texture fine and even. The wood often smells like leather.

The timber is difficult to season, being subject to considerable end splitting and surface checking. It rapidly blunts edged tools due to the presence of silica, but turns fairly well and takes a good finish. The wood is moderately durable when exposed to the weather or in contact with the ground; a life of 3 years in contact with the ground under tropical conditions is probably as much as can be expected.

In durability tests in Tanzania, fungi showed a particularly high affinity for Heritiera littoralis wood. The wood is not susceptible to powder-post beetles, and is reported to be resistant to marine borers, but not always to termites. It is probably difficult to impregnate with preservative because gum-like deposits are present.

The poisonous activity of the roots to fish is due to the presence of sesquiterpenoids such as heritonin and vallapin. The latter compound also showed activity against boll weevils. In tests in Japan, an ethanol extract of Heritiera littoralis branches showed strong DPPH 2,2-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity. Evergreen, monoecious, small to medium-sized tree up to 25 m tall, but usually smaller; bole up to 60 cm in diameter, often twisted and stunted, with thin, wavy and ribbon-like buttresses, often extending far out; bark fissured, greyish.

Inflorescence an axillary panicle up to 18 cm long, much-branched, scaly hairy. Flowers unisexual, regular, 4— 5-merous, small; pedicel up to 5 mm long; calyx cup-shaped, c. Seed oblong-ellipsoid, flattened, c. Seedling with hypogeal germination; first nodes with pairs of stipules only; first leaves comparatively narrow.

Heritiera comprises about 35 species, the majority of which occur in tropical Asia and with Heritiera littoralis as the most widespread species. In Africa two other species occur, although these are often considered to belong to a separate genus Tarrietia.

A distinct subspecies of Heritiera littoralis has been described from Madagascar: subsp. The fruits float in water, with the ridge upwards, and the seeds germinate readily in muddy substrates. When washed up on a beach, the flattened base of the fruit weakens, allowing moisture to penetrate. The fruit is split by the extruding thick, hard radicle, which develops into a primary root penetrating deeply into the soil.

The primary root branches soon, and subsequently the plumule extrudes. The growth of the branches is rhythmic and the shoots are distinctly articulate. Heritiera littoralis occurs on the landward side of mangroves, where fresh water mixes with sea water or predominates. It seems intolerant of high salinity. It is sometimes also found on rocky shores, and more often on the banks of tidal rivers. Moth larvae and beetles Curculionidae and Scolytidae may damage seeds of Heritiera littoralis.

High percentages of seeds may show evidence of borers, and research in Australia showed that very few seeds contain an intact embryo. Seeds are eaten by large crabs, monkeys and wild pigs. Moreover, crabs may damage seedlings. Heritiera littoralis is extremely widespread and as such not threatened.

However, it depends on a habitat type, i. Along the coasts of eastern Africa and the Indian Ocean islands it occurs only locally abundantly e. It is not expected that the value of Heritiera littoralis as a timber tree will increase because the bole is often of too small size and poor shape. Moreover, it occurs in too small quantities to allow cutting on a larger scale. Flore de Madagascar et des Comores plantes vasculaires , famille Firmin-Didot et cie.

Heritiera Aiton. In: Soerianegara, I. Timber trees: Major commercial timbers. Pudoc Scientific Publishers, Wageningen, Netherlands. The botany of mangroves. In: Exell, A. Flora Zambesiaca. Volume 1, part 2. Kenya trees, shrubs and lianas. National Museums of Kenya, Nairobi, Kenya. Trees of southern Africa. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society — Field guide to common trees and shrubs of East Africa. In: Bosser, J. Flore des Mascareignes. Familles 51— Fatty acid composition of Sterculia seeds and oils from Madagascar.

Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 41 1 : 64— Medicinal plants used by Luo mothers and children in Bondo district, Kenya. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 39— Toxicants from mangrove plants, 7. Vallapin and vallapianin, novel sesquiterpene lactones from the mangrove plant Heritiera littoralis.

Journal of Natural Products 54 1 : —

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Heritiera littoralis

Chek Jawa, Apr 12 Leaves dark green above, silvery below. Lim Chu Kang, Apr Bell-shaped flowers pink and velvety. Chek Jawa, Apr Mandai mangroves, Mar

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Heritiera littoralis , the looking-glass mangrove is a large tree with wing shaped nuts, which is most easily recognised by the silvery scales on the underside of its leaves, which therefore appear green from top and white from below, although Litsea mellifera A. Smith in the family Lauraceae , has the same type of leaves. The tree's tough wood has historically been used in boat-building. Native names for the tree include: [5] [6].

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