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Tech I-SEM. EDC Lab Manual. A Resistor is a passive two-terminal electrical component that implements electrical resistance as a circuit element. The current through a resistor is in direct proportion to the voltage across the resistor's terminals.
This relationship is represented by Ohm's law:. Where I is the current through the conductor in units of amperes, V is the potential difference measured across the conductor in units of volts, and R is the resistance of the conductor in units of ohms. The ratio of the voltage applied across a resistor's terminals to the intensity of current in the circuit is called its resistance, and this can be assumed to be a constant independent of the voltage for ordinary resistors working within their ratings.
Figure 1: Procedure to find the value of Resistor using Colour codes. Resistor Color Codes: Resistors are devices that limit current flow and provide a voltage drop in electrical circuits.
Because carbon resistors are physically small, they are color- coded to identify their resistance value in Ohms. The use of color bands on the body of a resistor is the most common system for indicating the value of a resistor. Use the Resistor Color Code Chart above to understand how to use the color code system. When looking at the chart, note the illustration of three round resistors with numerous color code bands. The first resistor in the chart with 4 bands tells you the minimum information you can learn from a resistor.
The next a 5-band code provides a little more information about the resistor. The third resistor a 6-band provides even more information. Each color band is associated with a numerical value. How to read a typical 4-band, 5-band and 6-band resistor: 4-Band: Reading the resistor from left to right, the first two color bands represent significant digits , the third band represents the decimal multiplier , and the fourth band represents the tolerance. Definitions of color bands: The color of the multiplier band represents multiples of 10,.
The tolerance indicates, in a percentage, how much a resistor can vary above or below its value. Example from chart : Lets look at the first resistor on the chart.
This becomes our first significant digit. Once again, follow the line down to the bar scale; it holds a value of 0, our second significant digit. Once again, follow the line down to the bar scale; it holds a value of 3. This represents 3 multiples of 10 or With this information, the resistance is determined by taking the first two digits, 1 and 0 10 and multiplying by 1, Thus, the permissible range is: 10, X. Carbon Resistors. Wire wound Resistors.
There are many types of resistors, both fixed and variable. The most common type for electronics use is the carbon resistor. The resistance value and tolerance can be determined from the standard resistor color code. A variation on the color code is used for precision resistors which may have five colored.
In that case the first three bands indicate the first three digits of the resistance. Figure 2: Images of Carbon Resistors. Wire Wound Resistors. Wire wound resistors are commonly made by winding a metal wire, usually nichrome, around a ceramic, plastic, or fiberglass core.
The ends of the wire are soldered or welded to two caps or rings, attached to the ends of the core. The assembly is protected with a layer of paint, molded plastic, or an enamel coating baked at high temperature. For higher power wire wound resistors, either a ceramic outer case or an aluminum outer case on top of an insulating layer is used. The aluminum-cased types are designed to be attached to a heat sink to dissipate the heat; the rated power is dependent on being used with a suitable heat sink, e.
Large wire wound resistors may be rated for 1, watts or more. Because wire wound resistors are coils they have more undesirable inductance than other types of resistor, although winding the wire in sections with alternately reversed direction can minimize inductance.
Other techniques employ bifilar winding, or a flat thin former to reduce cross-section area of the coil. For the most demanding circuits, resistors with Ayrton-Perry winding are used. Applications of wire wound resistors are similar to those of composition resistors with the exception of the high frequency. The high frequency response of wire wound resistors is substantially worse than that of a composition resistor.
Figure 3: Images of Carbon Resistors. A capacitor originally known as a condenser is a passive two-terminal electrical component used to store energy electro statically in an electric field. By contrast, batteries store energy via chemical reactions. The forms of practical capacitors vary widely, but all contain at least two electrical conductors separated by a dielectric insulator ; for example, one common construction consists of metal foils separated by a thin layer of insulating film.
Capacitors are widely used as parts of electrical circuits in many common electrical devices. When there is a potential difference voltage across the conductors, a static electric field develops across the dielectric, causing positive charge to collect on one plate and negative charge on the other plate.
Energy is stored in the electrostatic field. An ideal capacitor is characterized by a single constant value, capacitance. This is the ratio of the electric charge on each conductor to the potential difference between them. The SI unit of capacitance is the farad, which is equal to one coulomb per volt.
Figure 4: Electrolytic capacitors of different voltages and capacitance. In general, a capacitor consists of two metal plates insulated from each other by a dielectric. One classification of capacitors comes from the physical state of their dielectrics, which may be gas or vacuum , liquid, solid, or a combination of these. Each of these classifications may be subdivided according to the specific dielectric used.
Capacitors may be further classified by their ability to be used in alternating-current ac or direct- current dc circuits with various current levels.
Most plastic film types Figure1 have printed values and are normally in microfarads or if the symbol is n, Nanofarads. Working voltage is easily identified. A more difficult scheme is shown in Figure 2 where K is used for indicating Picofarads.
The unit is picofarads and the third number is a multiplier. Figure 7: Pico Farads Representation. Ceramic disk capacitors have many marking schemes. Capacitance, tolerance, working voltage and temperature coefficient may be found.
Capacitance values are given as number without any identification as to units. Odd looking. Figure 9: Miscellaneous Capacitors.
Electrolytic capacitor properties. There are a number of parameters of importance beyond the basic capacitance and capacitive reactance when using electrolytic capacitors. When designing circuits using electrolytic capacitors it is necessary to take these additional parameters into consideration for some designs, and to be aware of them when using electrolytic capacitors.
ESR Equivalent series resistance: Electrolytic capacitors are often used in circuits where current levels are relatively high. Also under some circumstances and current sourced from them needs to have low source impedance, for example when the capacitor is being used in a power supply circuit as a reservoir capacitor.
If the ESR is high, then it will not be able to deliver the required amount of current in the circuit, without a voltage drop resulting from the ESR which will be seen as a source resistance.
Frequency response: One of the problems with electrolytic capacitors is that they have a limited frequency response. It is found that their ESR rises with frequency and this generally limits their use to frequencies below about kHz.
This is particularly true for large capacitors, and even the smaller electrolytic capacitors should not be relied upon at high frequencies. Leakage: Although electrolytic capacitors have much higher levels of capacitance for a given volume than most other capacitor technologies, they can also have a higher level of leakage.
This is not a problem for most applications, such as when they are used in power supplies. However under some circumstances they are not suitable.
For example they should not be used around the input circuitry of an operational amplifier. Here even a small amount of leakage can cause problems because of the high input impedance levels of the op-amp. It is also worth noting that the levels of leakage are considerably higher in the reverse direction. Ripple current: When using electrolytic capacitors in high current applications such as the reservoir capacitor of a power supply, it is necessary to consider the ripple current it is likely to experience.
Capacitors have a maximum ripple current they can supply. Above this they can become too hot which will reduce their life.
In extreme cases it can cause the capacitor to fail. Tolerance: Electrolytic capacitors have a very wide tolerance. This is not normally a problem in applications such as decoupling or power supply smoothing, etc. However they should not be used in circuits where the exact value is of importance. Polarization: Unlike many other types of capacitor, electrolytic capacitors are polarized and must be connected within a circuit so that they only see a voltage across them in a particular way.
The physical appearance of electrolytic capacitor is as shown in Figure 5. The capacitors themselves are marked so that polarity can easily be seen. In addition to this it is common for the can of the capacitor to be connected to the negative terminal. Figure Electrolytic capacitor.
Edc Lab Manual
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Lab Manual for ELECTRONIC DEVICES AND CIRCUITS - EDC by JNTU Heroes
Tech I-SEM. EDC Lab Manual. A Resistor is a passive two-terminal electrical component that implements electrical resistance as a circuit element. The current through a resistor is in direct proportion to the voltage across the resistor's terminals. This relationship is represented by Ohm's law:. Where I is the current through the conductor in units of amperes, V is the potential difference measured across the conductor in units of volts, and R is the resistance of the conductor in units of ohms. The ratio of the voltage applied across a resistor's terminals to the intensity of current in the circuit is called its resistance, and this can be assumed to be a constant independent of the voltage for ordinary resistors working within their ratings.
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