LE PARALANGAGE PDF

Paralanguage refers to the non-speech sounds that speakers can use to modify the meaning of their speech. These vary across cultures. The volume at which we speak conveys meaning that varies across cultures; for example, British English speakers use volume to convey anger, but Indian English speakers use loudness to command attention. There are also cross-cultural differences in the normal baseline volume of speech; for example, Asians and Europeans speak at lower volumes than do North Americans.

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Paralanguage refers to the non-speech sounds that speakers can use to modify the meaning of their speech. These vary across cultures. The volume at which we speak conveys meaning that varies across cultures; for example, British English speakers use volume to convey anger, but Indian English speakers use loudness to command attention. There are also cross-cultural differences in the normal baseline volume of speech; for example, Asians and Europeans speak at lower volumes than do North Americans.

Tannen cites an example of intonation failure across cultures. Silence can be used for face-saving, conveying positive or negative emotions, communicating consent or dissent, marking approval or disapproval, or for social bonding or alienation. Muriel Savbille Troike recounts a deadly incident that occurred in Greece because of cross-cultural differences in the use of silence. Greeks regard silence as refusal, whereas Egyptians use silence to convey consent. When Egyptian pilots requested permission to land their planes on Greek soil, and Greek traffic controllers did not respond, the Egyptians interpreted this silence as consent and proceeded to land.

The Greeks interpreted this action as a direct contravention of their refusal and fired on the Egyptian planes. Differences in the use of silence can lead to negative stereotyping.

The Athabaskan Indians of North America do not engage in small talk with strangers, whereas European and African Americans use small talk to establish relationships. Athabaskan Indians stereotype European Americans as insincere and hypocritical for acting friendly before intimacy has been established.

Differences in silence are most pronounced between high- and low-context cultures. The contextual cues relevant in interpreting messages include social status, social relationships, relationship history, setting and non-verbal behaviours eye contact, facial expressions, body language, use of silence. In high-context cultures, silence is a sign of respect allowing others to express themselves without interruption or embarrassment , contemplation, and thoughtfulness.

In high-context cultures, indirect speech is common and open verbal conflict is frowned on. These are cultures e. Group cohesiveness is valued over individual expressiveness. Across Collectivist Asia, silence is used to signify disagreement while maintaining interpersonal harmony.

In low-context cultures, direct speech is common, and speech is clear and exact. The meaning of an utterance in a low-context culture is usually its literal interpretation and does not vary with context.

In these cultures, directness, clarity, and honesty and frankness are valued. In low-context cultures e.

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Meaning of "paralangage" in the French dictionary

Paralanguage , also known as vocalics , is a component of meta-communication that may modify meaning, give nuanced meaning, or convey emotion, by using techniques such as prosody , pitch , volume , intonation , etc. It is sometimes defined as relating to nonphonemic properties only. Paralanguage may be expressed consciously or unconsciously. The study of paralanguage is known as paralinguistics , and was invented by George L. Trager in the s, while he was working at the Foreign Service Institute of the Department of State. Hockett working with him on using descriptive linguistics as a model for paralanguage , Edward T. Hall developing proxemics , and Ray Birdwhistell developing kinesics.

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Paralanguage Across Cultures

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